Appendix (Helicon Publishing 1999)

1206

Nomadic Mongol tribes united by Genghis Khan to form nucleus of vast Mongol Empire which, stretching across central Asia, reached its zenith under Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan. late 17th century: Conquered by China  to become province of Outer Mongolia.

1911

 Independence proclaimed by Mongolian nationalists after Chinese 'republican revolution'; Tsarist Russia helped Mongolia to secure autonomy, under a traditionalist Buddhist monarchy in the form of a reincarnated lama.

1915

Chinese sovereignty reasserted.

1921

Chinese rule overthrown with Soviet help

1924

People's Republic proclaimed on death of king, when the monarchy was abolished; defeudalization programme  launched, entailing collectivization of agriculture and suppression of Lama Buddhism.

1932

Armed antigovernment uprising suppressed with Soviet assistance; 100,000 killed in political purges.

1946

China recognized Mongolia's independence.

1952

Death of Marshal Horloogiyn Choybalsan, the dominant force in the ruling communist Mongolian People's  Revolutionary Party (MPRP) since 1939.

1958

 Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal became dominant figure in MPRP and country.

1962

  Joined Comecon.

1966

20-year friendship, cooperation, and mutual-assistance pact signed with Soviet Union (USSR). Relations with China  deteriorated.

1984

Tsedenbal, the effective leader, retired; replaced by Jambyn Batmunkh.

1987

Reduction in number of Soviet troops; Mongolia's external contacts broadened. Tolerance of traditional social customs  encouraged nationalist revival.

1989

Further Soviet troop reductions.

1990

Demonstrations and democratization campaign launched, influenced by events in Eastern Europe; Batmunkh resigned  and charged with corruption.
Ex-communist MPRP elected in first free multiparty elections; Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat  indirectly elected president. Mongolian script readopted.

1991

 Massive privatization programme launched. GDP declined by 10%. Ochirbat resigned from MPRP in wake of  anti-Gorbachev attempted coup in USSR.

1992

MPRP returned to power in assembly elections held under new, non-communist constitution. Economic situation  worsened; GDP again declined by 10%.

1993

Ochirbat won first direct presidential elections.

1996

Economy showed signs of revival. Union Coalition won assembly elections, defeating MPRP and ending 75 years of  communist rule. Defence cooperation agreement signed with USA. Mendsayhany Enhsayhan became prime minister.

1997

Ex-communist Natsagiyn Bagabandi elected MPRP chairman. Economic 'shock therapy' programme, supervised by  IMF and World Bank, created unemployment and made government unpopular. Bagabandi elected president. Mongolia  first country to abolish all taxes and tariffs on trade.

1998

 National Democratic Party leader Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj became prime minister.

2001

Open the mongolschool.com hompage by Dui-Korea (http://www.dui.co..kr)


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