1. National name: Mongol Uls
2. Area: 1,565,000 sq km/604,246 sq mi
3. Capital: Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator)
4. Major towns/cities: Darhan, Choybalsan, Erdenet
5. Physical features: high plateau with desert and steppe (grasslands); Altai Mountains in southwest; salt lakes; part of Gobi desert in southeast; contains both the world's southernmost permafrost and northernmost desert
6. Head of state: Natsagiyn Bagabandi from 1997
7. Head of government: Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj from 1998
8. Political system: emergent democracy
9. Political parties: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), reform-socialist (ex-communist); Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP), traditionalist, promarket economy; Union Coalition (UC, comprising the MNPD and the Social Democratic Party (SDP)), democratic,  promarket economy
10.Currency: tugrik
11.Real GDP per capita (PPP): ($ US) 3,766 (1994)
12.Exports: minerals and metals (primarily copper concentrate), consumer goods, foodstuffs, agricultural products. Principal market: Japan 18.7% (1995)
13.Population: 2,515,000 (1996 est)
14.Language: Khalkha Mongolian (official); Chinese, Russian, and Turkic languages
15.Religion: officially none (Tibetan Buddhist Lamaism suppressed in 1930s)
16.Life expectancy: 64 (men); 67 (women) (1995–2000)











square24_blue.gif Geography

Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map references: Asia
total area: 1.565 million sq km
land area: 1.565 million sq km
comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska
Land boundaries:
total: 8,114 km
border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
International disputes: none
Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast
lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil 4,374 m
Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold
Land use:
arable land: 1%
permanent crops: 0%
meadows and pastures: 79%
forest and woodland: 10%
other: 10%
Irrigated land: 770 sq km (1989)
current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification
natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring
international agreements: party to - Biodiversity, Climate Change, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban; signed, but not ratified - Desertification, Law of the Sea
Geographic note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia People


square24_blue.gif People

2,496,617 (July 1996 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 38% (male 486,321; female 471,931)
15-64 years: 58% (male 722,485; female 723,065)
65 years and over: 4% (male 39,704; female 53,111) (July 1996 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.69% (1996 est.)
Birth rate: 25.55 births/1,000 population (1996 est.)
Death rate: 8.65 deaths/1,000 population (1996 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1996 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
all ages: 1 male(s)/female (1996 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 69.7 deaths/1,000 live births (1996 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.75 years
male: 58.8 years
female: 62.8 years (1996 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.04 children born/woman (1996 est.)
noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian
Ethnic divisions: Mongol 90%, Kazak 4%, Chinese 2%, Russian 2%, other 2%
Religions: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, Muslim 4%
note: previously limited religious activity because of communist regime
Languages: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian, Chinese
Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1988 est.)
total population: 82.9%
male: 88.6%
female: 77.2%


square24_blue.gif Government.

Name of country:

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia
Data code: MG
Type of government: republic
Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*, Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs
Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China)
National holiday: National Day, 11 July (1921)
Constitution: adopted 13 January 1992
Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 3 September 1990) was nominated by parties in the State Great Hural and elected in general presidential elections for a four-year term; election last held 6 June 1993 (next to be held NA 1997); results - Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (MNDP and MSDP) elected directly with 57.8% of the vote, other candidate Lodongiyn TUDEV (MPRP)
head of government: Prime Minister Putsagiyn JASRAY (since 3 August 1992) and Deputy Prime Ministers Lhamsuren ENEBISH (since NA October 1992) and Choijilsurengiyn PUREVDORJ (since NA September 1990) were appointed by the State Great Hural
cabinet: Cabinet was appointed by the State Great Hural
Legislative branch: unicameral
State Great Hural: elections held for the first time 28 June 1992 (next to be held NA June 1996); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (76 total) MPRP 71, United Party of Mongolia 4, MSDP 1
note: the People's Small Hural no longer exists
Judicial branch: Supreme Court, serves as appeals court for people's and provincial courts, but to date rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts, judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts for approval of the Great Hural
Political parties and leaders: Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Budragchagiin DASH-YONDON, secretary general; Mongolian National Democratic Party (MNDP), D. GANBOLD, chairman; Mongolian Social Democratic Party (MSDP), B. BATBAYAR, chairman; United Party of Mongolia, leader NA
note: opposition parties were legalized in May 1990
International organization participation: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Jalbuugiyn CHOINHOR
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227
consulate(s) general: New York
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
embassy: inner north side of the Big Ring, just west of the Selbe Gol, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: c/o American Embassy Beijing, Micro Region 11, Big Ring Road; PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [976] (1) 329095, 329606
FAX: [976] (1) 320776
Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red, centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem ("soyombo" - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)


square24_blue.gif Economy .

Economic overview:

Mongolia's severe climate, scattered population, and wide expanses of unproductive land have constrained economic development. Economic activity traditionally has been based on agriculture and the breeding of livestock. In past years extensive mineral resources had been developed with Soviet support; total Soviet assistance at its height amounted to 30% of GDP. The mining and processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Timber and fishing are also important sectors. The Mongolian leadership has been gradually making the transition from Soviet-style central planning to a market economy through privatization and price reform and has been soliciting support from international financial agencies and foreign investors. The economy, however, has still not recovered from the loss of Soviet aid. The country continues to suffer substantial economic hardships, with one-fourth of the population below the poverty line.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $4.9 billion (1995 est.)
GDP real growth rate: 6% (1995 est.)
GDP per capita: $1,970 (1995 est.)
GDP composition by sector:
agriculture: 28%
industry: 35%
services: 37% (1993 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 53% (1995 est.)
Labor force: 1.115 million (mid-1993 est.)
by occupation: primarily herding/agricultural
note: over half the adult population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women; shortage of skilled labor
Unemployment rate: 15% (1991 est.)
revenues: $1.5 billion
expenditures: $1.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1995 est.)
Industries: copper, construction materials, mining (particularly coal); food and beverage, processing of animal products
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
capacity: 900,000 kW
production: 3.1 billion kWh
consumption per capita: 1,267 kWh (1993)
Agriculture: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Exports: $400 million (f.o.b., 1995 est.)
commodities: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
partners: former CMEA countries 62%, China 17%, EC 8% (1992)
Imports: $223 million (f.o.b., 1994)
commodities: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
partners: USSR 75%, Austria 5%, China 5% (1991)
External debt: $473.7 million (1994)
Economic aid:
recipient: ODA, $NA
Currency: 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos
Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1 - 4465.39 (October 1995), 412.72 (1994), 42.56 (1992), 9.52 (1991), 5.63 (1990)
Fiscal year: calendar year


square24_blue.gif Transportation .

total: 1,928 km
broad gauge: 1,928 km 1.524-m gauge (1994)
total: 46,700 km
paved: 1,000 km
unpaved: 45,700 km (1988 est.)
Waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1988)
Ports: none
total: 34
with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 7
with paved runways under 914 m: 1
with unpaved runways over 3 047 m: 3
with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m: 5
with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m: 10
with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m: 3
with unpaved runways under 914 m: 5 (1994 est.) Communications


square24_blue.gif Communications  .

Telephones: 89,000 (1995 est.)
Telephone system:
domestic: NA
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean Region)
Radio broadcast stations: AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 0
Radios: 220,000
Television broadcast stations: 1 (provincial repeaters 18)
Televisions: 120,000 (1993 est.)


square24_blue.gif Defense.

Branches: Mongolian People's Army (includes Internal Security Forces and Frontier Guards), Air Force
Manpower availability:
males age 15-49: 638,560
males fit for military service: 417,620
males reach military age (18) annually: 27,386 (1996 est.)
Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $22.8 million, 1% of GDP (1992)

  Mongol School.
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